The Afrikaner Volksfront (AVF - Afrikaner People-Nation Front) was officially founded on May 19, 1993. It brought together many Afrikaner (with reference to Afrikaans-speaking whites) “nationalist” organizations, the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB; at that time great Boer nationalist movement), and a large number of former generals of the Armed Forces and Police Forces of the “old” Republic of South Africa (RSA) empire, which opposed the creation of a new empire on the whole southern Africa, and demanded independence for the “Afrikaner/Boerevolk” (this was the term predominantly used, and translated as “Afrikaner Boer nation”) on the lands of the Boer Republics (about 16% of the whole territory), to form the “Volkstaat” (literally: the “State of the people-nation”).
At the end of the 1980’s international capitalism thought that the time was ripe for the establishment of a great empire in southern Africa, administered by a major political black and communist force (the ANC). This empire was to replace that of the RSA, which was politically administered by the white Afrikaners (with reference to Afrikaans-speaking whites), and incorporate several black independent and autonomous states. This project was supported by all international capitalist-communist forces, in all their various forms and expressions.
On the 2nd February 1990 FW De Klerk (leader of the Nasionale Party [NP] and State president of the RSA), announced in the Parliament of the RSA that the African National Congress (ANC), the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) and the South African Communist Party (SACP) - until then fought as terrorists - would be readmitted to the law, and Nelson Mandela (convicted terrorist) released. The release of communist terrorists, as it was logical to expect, did dramatically increase the violence in the region. However, within a few months, all laws that remained of the Apartheid system (already changed during the 80s), were abolished. The abolition of the laws of the Apartheid (capitalist tool responsible for to have changed southern Africa demographically) decreed the end of the RSA (the “white” [with reference to the colour of the skin] Empire). But this action was not intended to liberate the nations that the Empire had conquered, from the Boer (since to many black nations were recognized autonomy or independence), but to create a new empire, bigger, that encompasses both the RSA and various other autonomous or independent black states, to put all these nations under a single communist political force, which protect the interests of international capitalism: the ANC.
Although the Constitution of the RSA had been cleared by the removal of some of its fundamental laws, the NP remained in power. To give to itself a semblance of legitimacy (which it did not have) in March 1992 held a referendum, reserved for those who had been classified as “white” (of any nationality, but with skin rather white) by the empire of the RSA. In it, after a massive media bombardment financed by international capitalism, was asked to approve the conduct of De Klerk to negotiate a new constitution. The majority of Afrikaans-speaking whites (Boer and not-Boer) voted “no”, but the majority of the total “white” [with reference to skin colour] voted “yes”.
Among the many movements that were deployed for the “no” there were also: the Konserwatiewe Party (KP – in English: Conservative Party), the Herstigte Nasionale Party (HNP – in English: Reconstituted National Party), and the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB); which thanks to the common goal had begun to collaborate each other.
The HNP was a small party, but had a highly respected leader: Jaap Marais.
The KP in the 1989 RSA’s general elections, was obtained 31.5% of the total vote. It was the main parliamentary opposition force, and its was based on a predominantly Afrikaner (with reference to Afrikaans-speaking whites) vote, very strong in the areas of the former Boer Republics. It collected approximately the 43% of the Afrikaner vote (and only 7.5% of the Anglophone), and controlled most Transvaal’s municipalities.
The AWB was a great extra-parliamentary nationalist force with paramilitary structures, the only really able to mobilize people politically and militarily (many of his men had fought in the South African Border War).
But these three forces in 1990 they still had different goals. The AWB claimed Boer independence, while the majority of KP supported the RSA, as well as the HNP.
Between 1990 and 1993, southern Africa was the scene of a massive series of bombings, armed actions, and paramilitary demonstrations in the streets, led by Boer nationalists in order to force the government of the Empire of RSA; the communists; and international capitalism; to recognize the independence of a Boer State on the land of the Boer Republics.
Over the months, and with the progress of negotiations for the creation of the new Empire; the idea of an independent state on the lands of the Boer Republics began to seem the only way even to KP.
In September 1992, the KP; the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) of Zulu; the State of Bophuthatswana; the State of Ciskei; and the State of KwaZulu; established the COSAG (Concerned South African Group), which called for freedom for all nations of southern Africa.
The situation in this period was extremely unstable. The Zulu threatened war if their independence would not been recognized, and meanwhile fought against the ANC (with great shedding of blood). The whites were killed by black terrorists. The bombs of Boer nationalists exploded, and they threatened to start their Third War of Liberation.
On April 10, 1993, Janusz Waluś - anti-communist Polish emigrated in southern Africa - killed Chris Hani, secretary of the SACP and former chief of staff of the armed wing of the ANC. Southern Africa was on the brink of a war.
How it came to the foundation of the Afrikaner Volksfront (AVF)
Between 1991 and 1992, some ex-generals of the RSA had given rise some committees (known as “committees of the generals”) for the declared purpose of encourage the creation of an independent state on the lands of the Boer Republics. In June 1992, Eenheidskomitee 25 (EK25, the United Committee of the 25), expanded in Volkseenheidskomitee (Vekom, the Committee of National Unity). KP and HNP (after the defeat in the referendum of 1992) helped the VEKOM to establish regional committees in Transvaal and in the Orange Free State.
The VEKOM after the murder of Chris Hani, invited all Afrikaner (with reference to Afrikaans-speaking whites) organizations and some Boer nationalist organizations to join together, with several former generals of the RSA. Among these included: Gen. Constand Viljoen (former Chief of the Armed Forces of the RSA), Gen. P.H. (“Tienie”) Groenewald (former Chief of Military Intelligence of the RSA), Gen. Koos Bischoff (former Chief of operations of the RSA), Gen. Lothar Neethling (a former Deputy Commissioner of the Police of the RSA), and Gen. Kobus Visser (former Head of the Criminal Investigation Department).
About a month later, in Pretoria, was founded the Afrikaner Volksfront (AVF).
The HNP at the last minute draw back. Jaap Marais complained that the “Afrikaner” name of the organization was too generic. It may seem curious, given that came from a champion of the so-called Afrikaner (with reference to Afrikaans-speaking whites) “nationalism”, but really wanted to emphasize a very specific problem: minority forces, within the AVF, with the term “Afrikaner” intended (correctly) all Afrikaans speakers, without race/national distinctions, so they were not aiming to the creation of an “Afrikaner Boer” State, but of an Afrikaans Empire. These forces were, in particular, the Afrikaner Volksunie (AVU) and the Afrikaner Vryheidstigting (Avstig) of Prof. Carel Boshoff, very small movements, but very influential.
The Boerestaat Party (BSP, the Boer State Party) of Robert van Tonder, and the Orde Boerevolk (OB) of Piet “Skiet” Rudolph, didn’t join the AVF. These two Boer liberation movements, in the “Afrikaner Boer” project of the AVF, did not see a way to gather and assimilate all white people (when are similar and assimilable) in the Boer nation (as hoped by AWB), but a false nationalism, without borders, capable only of one thing: to destroy the true (Boer) nationalism. A nation is itself, not something else. Talking about “Afrikaner Boer” nation (using the two terms as synonyms) when the majority of the Afrikaners (with reference to Afrikaans-speaking whites, Boer and not-Boer) haven’t been Trekboers; didn’t participate in the Great Trek; and have fought for the British Empire against the Boer Republics; could mean everything and its opposite, whereas a nation has very specific boundaries: biological and spiritual, historical and territorial.
Structure of the Afrikaner Volksfront (AVF)
Chairman of the executive council of the AVF (composed of nine members) was elected Ferdi Hartzenberg, leader of the KP. The executive council, however, was accompanied by a “directorate” of four generals, led by Gen. Constand Viljoen; the other three generals were: Tienie Groenewald, Koos Bischoff and Kobus Visser. So the generals, instead of having a subordinate role to the political leaders, as would have been logical, positioned themselves at the top of the coalition (AVF), carving out important roles of representation (especially in external negotiations, more or less secret); when their task (in theory) had to be something quite different: to work to ensure that sectors of the Armed Forces and Police of the RSA declare their faith to the rising “Volkstaat”.
Among the many movements that were part of the AVF there were: the AWB, the KP, and several smaller organizations.
The KP had the votes; the AWB had men; and the generals (it was thought) were ready to mobilize significant sectors of the Armed Forces and Police in favour of the independentist cause.
What was thought to be the Afrikaner Volksfront (AVF) in 1993
[From AWB’s website, 2002]
A meeting was held for the purpose of bringing all those organizations of the same national identity together, and during May of 1993 the Afrikaner Volksfront (Afrikaner Peoples Front) was formed. This front represented the vast majority of all those organizations and their leaders. General Constand Viljoen, chief of the SA Armed Forces gave his assurance to this gathering that he had the majority of the army behind him. With the announcement of a National State the members of the Army would form the Army of the New Volkstaat (National State). In order to destabilize the country [southern Africa. Ed] the AWB had to neutralize the towns and cities of South Africa [in the Transvaal. Ed.].
Gen. Tienie Groenewald, in 1993, publicly declared that “Afrikaner Boer” independentist forces could count on an army of 500,000 men, ready to fight for the liberation of Volkstaat.
The participation of the generals, their promises and their ensures, were the glue to put together various nationalist movements. With their support (which was credible, in that historical period) the independence of Afrikaners and Boers, on a good part of the lands which had been of the Boer Republics, it seemed absolutely achievable.
Activity of the Afrikaner Volksfront (AVF)
One of the pillars of the Afrikaner Volksfront (AVF) was that the right to self-determination was not negotiable. The AVF, immediately after its establishment, asked to the Government of the RSA to stop negotiations with the ANC and other black communist movements, and to act to guarantee the right to self-determination to all nations of southern Africa. If the right to self-determination had not been secured, the AVF would proceed to independence, with the Boer Unilateral Declaration of Independence in the western Transvaal.
The Afrikaner Volksfront was part of the “Freedom Alliance” (former COSAG), the multinational alliance that sought freedom for all nations of southern Africa. The AWB (the major component of the AVF) was officially allied with the Inkata Freedom Party (IFP) in November 1993.
The statements of various exponents of the AVF, in particular Constand Viljoen and Tienie Groenewald, for several months were very belligerent. They promised war if Volkstaat didn’t have independence.
At the same time, however, Constand Viljoen and some minor politicians of the AVF, issued contradictory statements on the nature of the nation for which they said want independence. Instead of speaking of Boer nation, on the land of the Boer Republics (as AWB did); sometimes they spoke of “white nation”, with regard only to skin colour (knowing full well that the only colour of skin doesn’t a nation), giving the impression that they wanted a new empire of the RSA, and moreover in an area not well identified. All this only served to weaken the cause of the only true white nation, the only one that had, and has, right to independence and self-determination: The Boer nation.
On 25 June 1993, while the AWB invaded and occupied the World Trade Center in Kempton Park, Johannesburg, where were held multiparty negotiations (the same that AVF had asked to interrupt) Constand Viljoen, unsuccessfully, tried to stop the Boer nationalists.
In December 1993, during the occupation of Fort Schanschop by men of the Pretoria Boere Kommando (PBK) led by Commandant Willem Ratte, Constand Viljoen and Kobus Visser (of the AVF), intervened to advise the Boer nationalists to leave immediately the Fort to avoid a conflict with the forces of the RSA. The initiative wanted to protest against the inauguration of the Transitional Executive Council (TEC), the transitional government that would lead to the birth of the new empire.
On January 29, 1994, the AVF inaugurated the Volksverteenwoordigende Rand (VVR, the Council of Representatives): the Parliament of the nation. Chairman of the VVR was appointed Ferdi Hatzenberg; which in turn appointed Constand Viljoen as minister of Defence and Eugene Terre’Blanche as minister of Law and Order. The same day, however, Constand Viljoen, chairman of the “directorate” of the AVF, contradicting everything that had publicly supported until then, proposed to participate in the multinational elections that have led to the birth of the new Empire. The VVR, at its first meeting of the 10th February 1994, officially decided not to participate in these elections, because foreign to the “Afrikaner Boer” nation.
On 5th March 1994 the Volksverteenwoordigende Rand (VVR) overwhelmingly rejected the decision of the General Constand Viljoen to register (the day before) a new party (the Vryheidsfront, VF) to take part in the elections of the new Empire, scheduled for the 27th of April.
Terre’Blanche, visibly irritated and tried, said that day: “I’m not interested in living, anymore. There’s no reason for my existence if I have to live in a communist system.”
On 10 March 1994, the Boere Krisis Aksie (BKA; on that occasion commanded by the generals of the AVF) and the AWB enter with weapons in the independent state of Bophuthatswana, on request of President Lucas Mangope, a their ally in the Freedom Alliance (FA), to help him to resist to a communist coup, and to defend the independence of Bophuthatswana. The commander of the BKA, Colonel Jan Breytenbach (former commander of the 32nd Battalion of the RSA), appointed by Constand Viljoen (still in position despite all!), denied aid and supplies to the men of the AWB in Bophuthatswana. Four AWB’s men were killed during their return in the western Transvaal; three of them (including the Wenkommando general head of the mission) were murdered the 11 March in front of the cameras, after having surrendered.
A few days before that action, the Gen. Constand Viljoen was in Bophuthatswana in the company of the then Army Chief of RSA, General George Meiring!
About AVF there is nothing else interesting to tell. The only real movement that will fight for the Boer independence will be the AWB, and will do so alone.
The men of the Afrikaner Volksfront (AVF)
Gen. Constand Viljoen was the leader of VF until 2001.
Gen. Tienie Groenewald, in 1994, was elected senator for the VF in the parliament of the Empire of southern Africa.
Gen. Kobus Visser; Dr. Wally Grant (member of AVSTIG among the promoters of the committees which then led to the foundation of the AVF); Anna and Carel Boshoff IV (wife and son of Professor Carel Boshoff); in June 1994 were appointed by VF as members of the “Volkstaat Council”, an organization created by agreement between VF and ANC.
Pieter Mulder, a former member of the KP and member of the parliament of the RSA, in 1994 was elected to the parliament of the new Empire; from 1994 to 2001 was the National Chairperson of the VF; in 2001 was elected new leader of the VF; and since 2009 is the Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in the cabinet of the Empire.
Ferdi Hartzenberg, in 1994, after learning of the foundation of VF and its participation in the elections of the Empire, announced to the AWB that the KP would no longer supported the Boer Unilateral Declaration of Independence. In 2004, the KP is merged in the VF, giving rise to Vryheidsfront Plus (VF+). Ferdinand Hartzenberg, son of Ferdi, was a candidate of the VF+.
Eugene Terre’Blanche was sentenced to six years for terrorism, has spent about three years and seven months in prison for other charges, and was assassinated by two blacks April 3, 2010.
The sense of the Afrikaner Volksfront (AVF)
The day of the first election of the new Empire, Viljoen and 35 other former generals (31 of the Army of the RSA and 4 of the Police of the RSA) went to vote at the polling station of Voortrekkerhoogte military base in Pretoria (the city that AVF, in late January, had declared the capital of the Volkstaat).
Just at Voortrekkerhoogte, years before, at a meeting of the Afrikaner Broederbond (AB), Viljoen had argued in favour of a single state in southern Africa, which had included all the nations that inhabit it (therefore an empire). The day had arrived.
Today the name of that military base is “Thaba Tshwane”.
That Gen. Constand Viljoen, head of the directorate of the generals of the AVF (a coalition that he had helped to create, in theory, to free Afrikaners and Boers, avoiding were incorporated in the new Empire), founded and registered a political party (which gave immediate support many former generals of the RSA, politicians, members of the Armed Forces, intellectuals and businessmen) just to become part of the Empire, in contravention of the decisions of the Parliament of which he was a member (VVR), and of the Government when he was Minister, reveals a clear strategy, aimed to unite Afrikaners and Boers in an independentist front, for to rule it, and then break it and submit it. And so it was. A new Afrikaner (with reference to Afrikaans-speaking whites not-Boer) strategy, to subdue the Boer nation to the Empire. Once to the British one, then to that of RSA, and then to that of Azania.
Robert van Tonder, leader of the Boerestaat Party, just days before the imperial election of 1994, declared that those who voted for the parliament of the Empire was not a Boer, because the Boers (in blood and spirit) would not have voted for a foreign Empire against their freedom. The difference between an Afrikaans-speaking white and a Boer is also this.