Notable dates of Boer past Print
Monday, 10 June 2013 07:07


From the blog Ron_357 by Ron, director of Republican Trekker Volk

July 31, 2007

Notable Dates of Boer Past.

April 6 1652. The first White settlers led by Jan van Riebeeck arrive at the Cape on board the Drommedaris. Most of the arrivals were forced out of Europe by the VOC. The Cape is governed by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) until 1795.

Feb 21 1657. First nine free White burghers (citizens) establish settlement in Liesbeeck Valley -now Rondebosch area.

1671. Arrival of the first French Huguenot refugee Francois Villion.

1687 - 1690. Largest wave of French Huguenot refugee arrivals.

1679 - 1690. Trekboer group emerges within Cape frontier.

1730. First Boers reach George area.

1743. First recorded Trekboer loan farms in Roggeveld.

1745. The town of Swellendam is founded.

1760. Jacobus Coetzee crosses the Orange River.

1770s-90's. Intensive Khoisan resistance to Trekboer occupation.

1771. Clashes between Trekboers and Xhosa begin as trekkers cross the Gamtoos.

1786. The town of Graaff-Reinet is founded.

1795. Revolt in Swellendam & Graaff-Reinet.

Feb 6 1795. Republic of Graaff-Reinet founded.
Three-colour flag
June 18 1795. Republic of Swellendam founded.

September 16 1795. First British occupation of the Cape on behalf of the Prince of Orange.

November 12 1795. Britain takes Swellendam Republic by force.

August 12 1796. Britain takes Graaff-Reinet Republic by force.

March 9 1816. Boer Rebellion at Slagters Nek.

1824. First Trekboers cross the Orange River.

Great Trek Dates.

1835. First Voortrekkers set off northward.

1835. Johannes van Rensburg & Louis Trichardt treks start.

1836. Johannes van Rensburg & Louis Trichard die.

1836 - 1843. The Great Trek.

Feb 1836. Hendrik Potgieter crosses the Orange River along with 200 others in his trekker contingent.
Voortrekker flag
1836. Chief Moroka of the Barolong signs a treaty with the Boers after Mzilikazi, leader of the Matebele, attacked the Barolong killing some & enslaved their children.

October 1836. Mzilikazi, leader of the Matebele attacks the Boers at Vegkop attempting to kill them. Boers emerge victorious.

December 7 1836. Hendrik Potgieter elected as military commander of the trek and Gert Maritz elected as administrative leader.

1837. Andries Pretorius goes on an exploratory trek.

Jan 21 1837. Prominent figure in the eastern Cape Piet Retief writes a declaration of grievances against the British colonial government which outline reasons for the mass exodus of Boers from the Cape called the Retief Manifesto.

Jan 22 1837. The Retief Manifesto is published in the English language Graham's Town Journal.

April 1837. Piet Retief arrives at trekker camp.

September 1837. Retief arrives in Natal.

November 1837. Favourable news about a possible land deal with the current Zulu king (Dingane) resulted in more than one thousand Voortrekker wagons heading over the Drakensberg to Natal.

November 5 1837. Piet Retief leaves the main body of Trekkers.

Feb 4 1838. Piet Retief & the Zulu King Dingaan sign a treaty which allows the Boers in Natal to settle an unoccupied stretch of land south of the Tugela River.

Feb 6 1838. Piet Retief & his delegation were killed by Dingaan in Natal during a formal ceremony over the deal which had been reached earlier.

Feb 16 1838. Saailaager Massacre. Boers camped in Natal were killed on the orders of Dingaan.

Feb 17 1838. Bloukrans Massacre. 370 Boers camped in Natal were killed on the orders of Dingaan. 500 Boers in total were killed during the massacres.

April 6 1838. Piet Uys & Hendrik Potgieter rode into Zulu territory & were defeated by approx 7 000 warriors.

September 23 1838. Gert Maritz dies.

November 22 1838. Andries Pretorius arrives in Natal & is appointed leader on November 25.    

December 9 1838. Vow taken by Boers to God for protection.

December 16 1838. Battle of Blood River. Boers defeat Zulus at Nacome River after being attacked by Zulu impis & after Boer offer to enter into negotiation for peace.

The town of Pietermaritzburg is founded.

December 22 1838. The town of Potchefstroom is founded.

December 25 1838. Pretorius buries Retief & his delegation.

October 12 1839. The Natalia Republic is established with Pietermaritzburg as its capital.
Flag of the Republic of Natalia
December 24 1839. The Natalia Driekleur Flag is adopted.

1840. The new Zulu King Mpande confirms the contents of the previous treaty his predecessor made with the Boers.

1840. The Boers & the Zulus enter into an alliance under Pretorius & Mpande & two groups remain on good terms.

1840. Boers & Zulus exchange Rocks of Peace in a spirit of reconciliation.

1840. The Church of the Vow built by Boers in Pietermaritzburg.

October 16 1840. Potchefstroom / Winburg & Natalia unifies as a single Boerestaat.
Flag of the Potchefstroom Republic
December 24 1839. The Natalia Driekleur Flag is adopted.

1840. The new Zulu King Mpande confirms the contents of the previous treaty his predecessor made with the Boers.

1840. The Boers & the Zulus enter into an alliance under Pretorius & Mpande & two groups remain on good terms.

1840. Boers & Zulus exchange Rocks of Peace in a spirit of reconciliation.

1840. The Church of the Vow built by Boers in Pietermaritzburg.

October 16 1840. Potchefstroom / Winburg & Natalia unifies as a single Boerestaat.

1843. The Natalia Republic is annexed by Britain.

April 9 1844. Potgieter declares the independence of Potchefstroom.

April 1844. Boers from Natal settle at Potchefstroom.

1846. The town of Bloemfontein is founded.

1847. Pretorius leaves Natal for the high veld.

1848. Battle of Bloomplaats.

Feb 3 1848. Orange Free State annexed under Sir Harry Smith.

March 16 1852. Reconciliation between Pretorius & Potgieter.

December 16 1852. Hendrik Potgieter dies.

Jul 23 1853. Andries Pretorius dies.

1855. The town of Pretoria is founded.

1866. Boers & Zulus come together at Nacome River & stack rocks as a symbol of peace.

Orange Free State Republic Dates.

Proclamation declaring British sovereignty on Feb 3 1848 between Orange & Vaal rivers.

Pretorius defeated by the British at Boomplats August 29 1848.

The British abandoning and renouncing all dominion on Jan 30 1854.

Orange River Convention signed on Feb 17 1854.

The Orange Free State recognized as an independent republic. Feb 23 1854.

Named the Orange Free State Republic. March 29 1854.

Josias Philippus Hoffman becomes the first OFS President. April 18 1854 - Feb 10 1855.

Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof assumes office as President. Aug 27 1855 - September 6 1859.

An armed raid by President Pretorius from the Transvaal is not successful. Jan 1857.

Orange Free State Vierkleur adopted on Feb 23 1857.
Flag of the Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrystaat)
A Peace Treaty with the South African Republic (Transvaal) is signed: each State recognizes the independence of the other. June 1 1857.

An armed band of Basutos seizes Orange Free State farms and destroys buildings and orchards. Feb 1858.

A declaration of war against Moshesh who refuses redress of grievances and the unsuccessful campaign against the Basutos causes the Orange Free State to lose the war. March 19 1858.

A Treaty of Peace is signed with Moshesh at Aliwal North with cession of territory by the Free State. September 29 1858.

A proposal of Sir George Grey for a union of Cape Colony, Natal, and the Orange Free State which was not approved by the Imperial Government in England. November 19 1858.

The wars with the Basutos end. 1859.

The resignation of President Boshof is not accepted. Feb 1859.

The final resignation of President Boshof with E. R. Snyman being appointed Acting President. June 25 1859.

The district of Bethulie is ceded by Chief Lepui. October 8 1859.

J. J. Venter elected President. December 15 1859.

Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, son of Commandant General Andries Pretorius, is elected President but he has to obtain a leave of absence from the Transvaal where he was also President. Feb 8 1860 serves until June 20 1863.

A treaty is made by Adam Kok by which he cedes his lands to the Free State for £ 4,000 and he removes to East Griqualand: this cession becomes the District of Philippolis. December 26 1861.

The Bloemfontein Bank is established. June 19 1862.

Copper is first mined successfully at the Ookien mine in Little Namaqua Land. 1863.  

The resignation of President Pretorius. April 15 1863.

J. J. Venter becomes acting President. June 20 1863.

Johannes Henricus Brand elected President. November 5 1863.

President Johannes Henricus Brand assumes office. Feb 2 1864 - Jul 14 1888.

A decision is made by Sir Philip Wodehouse, in conference with representatives of the Free State and Moshesh, in favor of the Free State boundary as laid down by Sir Harry Smith. October 28 1864.

Pieter Jeremias Blignaut becomes acting President. Jul 14 1888 Jan 10 1889.

Francis William Reitz elected President. Jan 10 1889 December 11 1895.

Marthinus Steyn elected President. March 4 1896.

Railway line reaches from Cape Town to Bloemfontein. 1890.

The Orange Free State signs a pact with the Transvaal Republic. 1897.

Anglo-Boer War breaks out on October 12 1899.

Vreeniging Peace Treaty ends the independence of the Republic on May 31 1902.

Incorporation into South Africa on May 31 1910.

Republic of South Africa declared on May 31 1961.

Transvaal Republic Dates.

The Sand River Convention signed on Jan 17 1852.

Marthinus Pretious is elected as President of the first Transvaal Republic consisting then of Potchefstroom & Rustenburg districts. November 15 1855.

The Zoutpansberg Republic & the Lydenburg Republic refuse to join the Potchestroom Republic to form the South African Republic. 1856.

Representatives of the districts of Potchefstroom / Rustenburg / and Pretoria meet in special assembly and adopt a constitution for a central government, a national flag for the South African Republic (the Transvaal) and is organized under Marthinius Pretorius and Paul Kruger, but dissenters maintained separate state organizations in Zoutpansberg, Lydenburg and Utrecht. December 16 1856.
Paul Kruger
A meeting of the old Volksraad to repudiate the South African Republic "Potchefstroom" constitution of Pretorius and Paul Kruger and establish the Republic of Lydenburg of the districts of Lydenburg, Utrecht, and Zoutpansburg. December 17 1856.

Creation of the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek. When Potchefstroom & Rustenburg join. Marthinius Pretorius inaugurated as the first President of the South African Republic. Jan 6 1857.

President Pretorius mounts an armed raid into Orange Free State to force its union with the South African Republic but it fails and peace is made by Paul Kruger. Jan 1857.

Adoption of the Transvaal Vierkleur Jan 6 1857.
“Four-colour” flag (Vierkleur)
The Peace Treaty with the Orange Free State is signed: each recognizing the independence of the other. June 1 1857.

Marthinus Pretorius accepts & becomes the President of the Orange Free State and resigns as Transvaal president. 1859.

Pretoria declared as new capital. 1860.

Zoutpansberg joined the South African Republic along with Lydenburg and Utrecht united as one state. Jan 1860.

Marthinus Pretorius receiving leave of absence as President of the Transvaal Republic takes office as President of the Orange Free State. Feb 6 1860.

Zoutpansburg / Lydenburg and Utrecht are joined in a union with the South African Republic & signed at Pretoria. April 4 1860. Zoutpansberg remains independent until 1864.

Marthinus Pretorius ends term as President of Orange Free State. April 15 1863.

The election of W. J. C. van Rensburg as President resulted in armed resistance by the Pretorius faction to the "disputed election" and a new election which Pretorius was again elected. October 1863.

Pretorious is re-elected to the office as President. May 10 1864.

The Zoutpansberg Republic is absorbed into the Transvaal Republic. 1864.

Nicolaas van Rensburg. Boer prophet born. August 30 1864.

Day of the Vow declared a public day of commemoration. 1865.

Gold discovered in Transvaal. 1871.

Thomas François Burgers elected President. Jul 1 1872 - April 12 1877.

The annexation of the Transvaal Republic occurred on April 12 1877.

Paul Kruger leads deputation to Britain to demand the freedom of the ZAR / Transvaal Republic. May 10 1877.

Telegraph service between Natal & Transvaal. 1878.

Paul Kruger leads second deputation to Britain to demand freedom of the ZAR. May 14 1878.

Triumvirate government formed on December 1 1880 consisting of Marthinus Wessel Pretorius / Paul Kruger / Petrus Jacobus Joubert.

Proclamation of renewed independence of the Transvaal Republic on Dec 13 1880.

Formal proclamation of the independence of the Transvaal Republic made on Dec 16 1880.

First shot fired in the Erste Vryheidsoorlog / First War of Independence of the ZAR. December 16 1880.

Feb 27 1881. Boer Victory over British at Majuba Hill.

Pretoria Convention ratified on Oct 25 1881.

Paul Kruger elected to his first term as President. May 9 1883.

London Convention ratified on Feb 27 1884 granting full independence of  the ZAR.

The Vryheid Republic established in Natal. August 16 1884.

Discovery of gold at Ferreira's camp later to become the town of Johannesburg. 1886.

President Paul Kruger authorizes the construction of the railway line to Delagoa Bay Mozambique. June 2 1887.

President Paul Kruger awards the Buys family a tract of land now known as Buysdorp for services rendered to the Transvaal Republic. 1888.

First railway line in Transvaal from Johannesburg to Boksburg. 1890.

Inauguration of the Paardekraal Monument. 1891.

Railway line between Lorenzo Marques Johannesburg opened. November 2 1894.

The Pretoria Delagoa Bay railway line opened by the South African Republic. 1895.

Railway line opened between Durban Johannesburg. December 16 1895.

Jameson led a force of about 500 men in a raid into the Transvaal Republic. It was resisted by the Boers & on Jan 2 1896 at Doornkop Jameson surrendered.

Railway line opened between Cape Town & Bulawayo. 1897.

5 000 Boers decide to resist the British annexation. 1897.

Transvaal signs a military pact with the Orange Free State. 1897.

Anglo-Boer War breaks out on October 12 1899.

Concentration camps initiated by British to round up Boer civilians 1901.

Vreeniging Peace Treaty ends the independence of the Transvaal Republic on May 31 1902.

New Republic Dates.

Vryheid Republic declared on August 5 1884.
Bandiera della Nuova Repubblica
South eastern portion annexed by Britain. 1887.

North western portion incorporated into the Transvaal Republic. 1887.

Anglo-Boer War Dates.

First shot of the second Anglo-Boer War by Coeztee at Kraaipanstasie. Over 27 000 people died in the world's first concentration camps as a result of the war. Half of the total Boer child population would die in the camps. October 11 / 12 1899.

Battle of Dundee. 1899.

Boers invade Natal. October 13 1899.

Sieges of Mafeking & Kimberly started. October 14 1899.

Battle of Talana. October 20 1899.

Battle of Elandslaagte. October 21 1899.

Siege of Ladysmith started. October 30 1899.

Battle of Belmont. November 23 1899.

Battle of Graspan. November 25 1899.

Battle of Modder River. Tweerivier. November 28 1899.

Battle of Lombard's Kop. December 8 1899. October 30 1899 [ ] more confirmed.

Battle of Stromberg. December 10 1899.

Battle of Magersfontein. December 11 1899.

Battle of Colenso. December 15 1899.

Sir Alfred Milner the Governor of the Cape Colony. 1900.

Amalgamation of Union and Castle Steamship Lines. 1900.

Jan 6. Boers attack Ladysmith - over 1000 people killed. Jan 6 1900.

Battle of Spion Kop. Jan 23 - 24 1900.

Battle of Vaal Kranz. Feb 7 1900.

Boer War: In South Africa, 20,000 British troops invade the Orange Free State. Feb 14.

Relief of Kimberly. Feb 15 1900.

Battle of Hart's Hill. Feb 23. 1900.

Battle at Paardeberg. First great British victory of the war. Feb 18 1900 - Feb 27 1900.

British military leaders receive an unconditional notice of surrender from Boer General Piet Cronje. Feb 27.

Ladysmith relieved. Feb 28 1900.

Battle of Poplar Grove. March 7 1900.

Bloemfontein captured by the British. March 13 1900.

First Boer prisoners of war arrive in St. Helena. April 14 1900.

Battle of Diamond Hill. June 11 1900.

Burning of Boer farms [ scorched earth ] policy authorized by Lord Kitchener. July / August 1900.

Teachers arrive from England to teach in the concentration camps followed by 100 teachers from Canada / New Zealand / & Australia. 1901.

Treaty of Vereeniging signed ending the Anglo-Boer War. May 31 1902.

Paul Kruger dies from cardiac failure after a period of illness. He is buried next to his wife Gezina Susanna Frederika Wilhelmina in Pretoria. July 14 1904.

British Occupation Dates.

March 13 1900. British forces occupy Bloemfontein, Orange Free State.

May 17 1900. British troops relieve Mafeking.

May 24 1900. British annex Orange Free State as Orange River Colony.

May 31 1900. British take Johannesburg.

June 5 1900. British take Pretoria.

September 1 1900. Proclamation of British annexation of the Transvaal.

Post Anglo-Boer War Dates.

President Paul Kruger dies. 1904.

Incorporation [of the former Boer Republics. Ed] into South Africa on May 31 1910.

Chinese labourers recruited for the Transvaal mines. 1904.

Asiatic Registration Act passed in the Transvaal. Indians oppose it. 1906.

Census of population taken. May 17 1911.

Miners strikes & riots on Witwatersrand. 1913.

Consecration of the Vrouemonument. December 1913.

General Koos De La Rey is shot & killed at a roadblock. September 15 1914.
Koos De La Rey
The Boer Revolt or Maritz Rebellion. September 15 1914.

Commandant Jopie Fourie executed by firing squad. December 20 1914.
Jopie Fourie
Former President Marthinus Steyn of the Orange Free State dies. 1916.

General Hertzog leads freedom deputation to Versailles to demand restoration of the Boer Republics. Sept 3 1919.

Afrikaans used for the first time in church. November 10 1919.

The dialect of Afrikaans spoken by the Boers is removed from Parliament. 1921 - 1923.

The Rand Revolt. 1922.

Recognition of Afrikaans as second official language of the Union after English. 1925.

Nicolaas van Rensburg. Notable Boer prophet died. March 11 1926.

Afrikaans Bible issued. 1933.

Ossewa Brandwag formed as an offshoot of Boer Republics restoration movement & as vehicle to achieve goal. 1939.
Ossewa Brandwag (OB)
300 000 to 500 000 people demand the restoration of the Boers Republics. 1940s.

Voortrekker Monument built. 1949.

Afrikaner establishment unite & organize against the Boer Republican movement preventing the Boers from reclaiming the Boer Republics. 1949.

D F Malan hijacks & subverts Boer Republican movement & co-opts a portion of its remnants into the fold of Afrikaner Nationalism. An Afrikaans language based teleocratic agenda aimed at securing an Afrikaans language based hegemony of the macro State of South Africa while marginalizing the Boer people in the process as Boers are outnumbered by Cape Dutch [ non-Boer ] descended Afrikaners. 1949.

Prime Minister Hans Strijdom dies in office after four years of assuming office. He was noted for leaning towards the restoration of the Boer Republics before suddenly dying. He was one of the few leaders of Boer descent. 1958.

The town of Randburg is founded by the chairman of a town council action committee: Robert van Tonder.  1959.

October 5 1960. Referendum on turning South Africa into a republic.

May 31 1961. Republic of South Africa declared.

1961. Robert van Tonder leaves the National Party to pursue restoring the Boer Republics.

1977. First printing of Boerestaat of Robert van Tonder.
Boerestaat, by Robert van Tonder
1984. The AWB adopts the notion of restoring the Boer Republics. Membership grows.
Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB)
1986. Robert van Tonder founds the Boerestaat Party as a democratic vehicle to achieve the goal of Boer Republic restoration.

1991. Robert van Tonder goes on the record calling President F W de Klerk "an undemocratic oppressor" for not allowing a vote on Boer Republic restoration.

[ 1990 - 1994. Boer Armed Struggle for Independence 1990 – 1994. Ed. ]

[ 1995. The Boer Republican Electoral Commission (BVK) ask the UN recognition of the Boers as indigenous people of southern Africa. Ed. ]

1999. Robert van Tonder dies after long battle with cancer.

[ 2010. Eugene Terre'Blanche murdered in his farm. Ed. ]

Eugene Terre'Blanche